Causes, Consequences, and Results Several centuries after they ended, the Crusades are remembered as wars that were fought and lost in the name of God.
The breakdown of the Carolingian Empire in the later 9th century, combined with the relative stabilization of local European borders after the Christianization of the Vikings, Slavs, and Magyars, meant that there was an entire class of warriors who now had very little to do but fight among themselves and terrorize the peasant population.
The Church tried to stem this violence with the Peace and Truce of God movements, forbidding violence against certain people at certain times of the year.
This was somewhat successful, but trained warriors always sought an outlet for their violence. A plea for help from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I in opposing Muslim attacks thus fell on ready ears.
One later outlet was the Reconquista in Spain, which at times occupied Spanish knights and some mercenaries from elsewhere in Europe in the fight against the Islamic Moors. InPope Alexander II had given papal blessing to Spanish Christians in their wars against the Muslims, granting both a papal standard the vexillum sancti Petri and an indulgence to those who were killed in battle.
This background in the Christian West must be matched with that in the Muslim East. Muslim presence in the Holy Land goes back to the initial Arab conquest of Palestine in the 7th century. This did not interfere much with pilgrimage to Christian holy sites or the security of monasteries and Christian communities in the Holy Land of Christendom, and western Europeans were not much concerned with the loss of far-away Jerusalem when, in the ensuing decades and centuries, they were themselves faced with invasions by Muslims and other hostile non-Christians such as the Vikings and Magyars.
However, the Muslim armies' successes were putting strong pressure on the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire. A turning point in western attitudes towards the east came in the yearwhen the Fatimid caliph of Cairo, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, had the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem destroyed.
His successor permitted the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it under stringent circumstances, and pilgrimage was again permitted, but many stories began to be circulated in the West about the cruelty of Muslims toward Christian pilgrims; these rumors then played an important role in the development of the crusades later in the century.
Historical context It is necessary to look for the origin of a crusading ideal in the struggle between Christians and Moslems in Spain and consider how the idea of a holy war emerged from this background. However, the response was much larger, and less helpful, than Alexius I desired, as the Pope called for a large invasion force to not merely defend the Byzantine Empire but also retake Jerusalem.
When the First Crusade was preached inthe Christian princes of northern Iberia had been fighting their way out of the mountains of Galicia and Asturias, the Basque country and Navarre, with increasing success, for about a hundred years.
The disunity of the Muslim emirs was an essential factor, and the Christians, whose wives remained safely behind, were hard to beat: All these factors were soon to be replayed in the fighting grounds of the East. Spanish historians have traditionally seen the Reconquista as the molding force in the Castilian character, with its sense that the highest good was to die fighting for the cause of the right deity, in a Christian jihad.
An ascetic religious fanaticism enforced by a military aristocracy became the dominant social value. While the Reconquista was the most prominent example of Christian war against Muslim conquests, it is not the only such example.
The Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard had conquered the "toe of Italy," Calabria, in and was holding what had traditionally been Byzantine territory against the Muslims of Sicily.
The maritime states of Pisa, Genoa and Catalonia were all actively fighting Islamic strongholds in Majorca and Sardinia, freeing the coasts of Italy and Catalonia from Muslim raids. Much earlier, of course, the Christian homelands of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, and so on had been conquered by Muslim armies.
This long history of losing territories to a religious enemy, as well as a powerful pincer movement on all of Western Europe, created a powerful motive to respond to Byzantine emperor Alexius I's call for holy war to defend Christendom, and to recapture the lost lands, starting at the most important one of all, in modern Israel.
The papacy of Pope Gregory VII had struggled with reservations about the doctrinal validity of a holy war and the shedding of blood for the Lord and had resolved the question in favor of justified violence.
Actions against Arians and other heretics offered historical precedents in a society where violence against unbelievers, and indeed against other Christians, was acceptable and common. Saint Augustine of Hippo, Gregory's intellectual model, had justified the use of force in the service of Christ in The City of God, and a Christian "just war" might enhance the wider standing of an aggressively ambitious leader of Europe, as Gregory saw himself.
The northerners would be cemented to Rome and their troublesome knights could see the only kind of action that suited them.The Crusades were a series of holy wars that lasted two hundred years.
The purpose of the Crusades was to “regain” the Holy Land which is Palestine and the .
From the first crusade being a holy pilgrimage for military and religious reasons, the following crusades were for personal gain, power, and wealth. Also, the distance between Europe and the Holy Land gradually took a toll on the Christians in the later crusades.
A Very Brief Overview of the Crusades. February 2, Bill There were also economic and political reasons. “The Crusades were a vast outpouring of landless peasants and equally landless nobles hoping to carve a better future in the lands to be taken from the Muslims.” and had practically no results.” These occurred in and.
Reasons of The Unjustified Crusades Essay.
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The reason of why the Crusades were mostly not justified outweighs the reasons of how they were justified. But there are some examples that the Christians have the right to go on the Crusades. No results found for. Ex-president Bill Clinton has also fingered the Crusades as the root cause of the present conflict.
In a speech at Georgetown University, he recounted (and embellished) a massacre of Jews after. The impact of the crusades. Learn about the military, religious, and cultural impact of the Crusades on Europe and the Middle East. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Email. It is hard to summarize the impact of a movement that spanned centuries and continents, crossed social lines, and affected all levels of culture.
However, there are a few.