The war can be represented as totalitarian regimes verses democratic regimes, but that is a somewhat simplistic analysis because rivalry and jealousy between the two sides was a fundamental issue. Germany felt that it was entitled to an empire; Britain, France, and even Belgium possessed extensive overseas territory while Germany had just a few colonies. The democratization process, though, was more advanced among the Allies than in Germany and her main ally, the Ottoman Empire. Humanity should learn from the legacy of this war that war cannot end war—it can only lead to more violence.
Odious debt is unfair debt resulting from illegitimate loans. A useful summary from Jubilee USA: Odious debt is an established legal principle. Legally, odious debt is debt that resulted from loans to an illegitimate or dictatorial government that used the money to oppress the people or for personal purposes.
They cannot legitimately expect repayment of such debts. Great Britain was also denied similar claims against Costa Rica in Many poor countries today have started their independent status with heavy debt burdens imposed by the former colonial occupiers.
South Africa as another example, has found it now has to pay for its own past repression: But it is not just South Africa paying for this; surrounding countries that have been destabilized from this are paying debts incurred to deal with it.
The organization Action for Southern Africa summarizes this clearly, albeit in a report from Apartheid wrought vast destruction across the region; now the people of Southern Africa want to rebuild.
In a remarkable spirit of reconciliation, the people of Southern Africa want to forgive the horrors of the past and look forward. But the banks, international financial institutions, and individual countries which lent to both sides in the apartheid war are demanding repayment.
After the Second World War, the United States allowed Britain to repay debt at a very low rate so that it could rebuild. Now the nations of Southern Africa want to rebuild a post-apartheid society, but the creditors of today, are not willing to offer them the space Britain received from the US and the Allies gave to Germany.
Various other nations have found that they have to pay debts incurred by their previous military dictators many of which were installed as clients of the rich countries. As Steve Mandel, of the New Economics Foundation argues, because so much of these loans were knowingly given to unaccountable and corrupt leaders, there should be a shift in discussion from odious debt to odious lending, and thus there should be more of a spotlight on the banks who made large loans to illegal regimes, in effect, sustaining them.
Mandel also notes the scale to which odious debt has been overpaid, and is quoted at length here: Long after odious debts are technically off the books, subsequent generations are still effectively paying for them. This [New Economics Foundation] research paper examines 13 clear cases that present a picture of the extent and impact of odious lending.
This means that people in these—often desperately poor—countries end up paying three times for loans ostensibly taken out in their name: Also, if debt cancellation only comes through the procedures of the Paris Club and the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries HIPC initiative, they pay a fourth time when IMF conditionality imposes the often disastrous policies of trade and capital account liberalisation, privatisation, and restrictions on social expenditure.
Back to top Mismanaged Lending Further debt resulted from mismanaged spending and lending by the West in the s and 70s. As summarized from Jubilee and reposted here: Oil-producing countries, pegged to the dollar were affected as the value of the dollar decreased.
Inthe oil-producing countries hiked their prices as a result, earning a lot of money, which they put in to western banks. Interest rates started to plummet resulting in more lending by banks to try and prevent a crisis.
A lot of the borrowed money went to western-backed dictators, resulting in little benefit for most people. In Mexico defaulted on its debt payment, threatening the international credit system.
The IMF and World Bank stepped in to Mexico and other nations facing similar problems, prescribing their loans and structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment.
The poor have suffered the most as a result of the harsh conditions of structural adjustment. Most loans to the third world have to be paid back in hard currencies which do not usually change too much in value, e. Poor countries have soft currencies values which can fluctuate.
Paying off loans implies earning foreign exchange in hard currencies. Combined with falling export prices for many poor countries, debts become even harder to pay off.Russian Civil War, (–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I.
Lenin against various . System Effects [Robert Jervis] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Based on more than three decades of observation, Robert Jervis concludes in this provocative book that the very foundations of many social science theories--especially those in political science--are faulty.
Taking insights from complexity theory as his . Weeks of wet weather preceding Lincoln's second inauguration had caused Pennsylvania Avenue to become a sea of mud and standing water. Thousands of spectators stood in thick mud at the Capitol grounds to hear the President.
50 Things You Should Know About the Second World War [Simon Adams] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. 50 Things You Should Know About the Second World War is the second instalment and follows the successful title on the First World War.
Discover what caused the war and why it eventually affected every corner of the globe. world war i.
updated january jump to: timelines / primary documents, letters, & diaries. statistics & casualties / diplomacy and causes of the war. participating countries / battle strategy & info.
weapons & the troops / trench warfare / gas warfare. military medicine / war in the air & on the sea. maps, images, art / war propaganda.
spies - . The First World War, known as the Great War before and as World War One after , lasted from August to the final Armistice with Germany on November 11, During the war, it was referred to as the war to end all wars. Some question the appropriateness of the term “world war” because it was largely a European, North African, and Middle Eastern war.