Introduction Quality assessment is widely considered to be highly relevant in Qualitative Health Research QHRand has therefore become the focus of numerous debates and publications. The following contribution is based on my teaching, research, and clinical experience in the field of primary health-care, as well as on a wide-ranging literature review on the topic. I do believe in the possibility of improving research practice through meaningful discussion.
In attempting to make sense of the social world, social constructionists view knowledge as constructed as opposed to created. This paper discusses how social constructionists construct knowledge and argues that social constructionism is concerned with the nature of knowledge and how it is created and as such, it is unconcerned with ontological issues.
Society is viewed as existing both as a subjective and an objective reality. Meaning is shared, thereby constituting a taken-for-granted reality.
Grounded theorists understand knowledge as beliefs in which people can have reasonable confidence; a common sense understanding and consensual notion as to what constitutes knowledge. If it is accepted that social constructionism is not based on a relativist perspective, then it is compatible with Grounded Theory methodology.
Introduction Social constructionism originated as an attempt to come to terms with the nature of reality. It emerged some thirty years ago and has its origins in sociology and has been associated with the post-modern era in qualitative research.
This is linked to the hyperbolic doubt posed by Bacon, the idea about how observations are an accurate reflection of the world that is being observed Murphy et al. Social constructionism is essentially an anti-realist, relativist stance Hammersley, The influence of social constructionism is a current issue within grounded theory Charmaz, and as such an understanding of its core concepts is important in evaluating its impact on the methodology.
It is imperative for those considering grounded theory as a methodology for their research to appreciate the differences between grounded theory as originated by Glaser and Strauss and subsequently remodelled using a constructionist perspective.
Given its current and profound influence on grounded theory, constructionism needs to be understood so that they can better evaluate the nature and validity of the arguments surrounding its use. It is less interested if at all in the cognitive processes that accompany knowledge.
The aim of this article is to familiarise readers with the idea of social constructionism. Its impact on grounded theory is the subject of a subsequent article. Origins Burr acknowledges the major influence of Berger and Luckmann in its development.
In turn they acknowledge the influence of Mead, Marx, Schutz and Durkheim on their thinking. Their writing therefore constitutes a synthesis of these influences.
The origins of social constructionism can be traced in part to an interpretivist approach to thinking. Mead, one of the originators of symbolic interactionism, is the common link. However, my understanding is that while they may share common philosophical roots, social constructionism is distinct from interpretivism.
In common with constructionists, interpretivists in general focus on the process by which meanings are created, negotiated, sustained and modified Schwandt, Proponents share the goal of understanding the world of lived experience from the perspective of those who live in it.
Both arose as a challenge to scientism and have been influenced by the post-modernist movement. Interpretivism differentiates between the social and natural sciences and has as its goal the understanding of the meaning of social phenomena.
While interpretivists value the human subjective experience, they seek to develop an objective science to study and describe it.
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There is then a tension evident between objective interpretation of subjective experiences. In other words, they attempt to apply a logical empiricist methodology to human inquiry. Schwandt views symbolic interactionism as an interpretative science. Nature and Construction of Knowledge Constructionists view knowledge and truth as created not discovered by the mind Schwandt and supports the view that being a realist is not inconsistent with being a constructionist.
One can believe that concepts are constructed rather than discovered yet maintain that they correspond to something real in the world. This is consistent with the idea of Berger and Luckmann and the subtle realism of Hammersley in that reality is socially defined but this reality refers to the subjective experience of every day life, how the world is understood rather than to the objective reality of the natural world.
As Steedman notes, most of what is known and most of the knowing that is done is concerned with trying to make sense of what it is to be human, as opposed to scientific knowledge. Individuals or groups of individuals define this reality.
This branch of constructionism is unconcerned with ontological questions or questions of causation. It is worth emphasising this, since a lot of the criticisms of constructionism arise from ascribing claims to it made beyond this social understanding of the world.
Berger and Luckmann are concerned with the nature and construction of knowledge: They views knowledge as created by the interactions of individuals within society which is central to constructionism Schwandt, Nov 08, · Murphy E, Dingwall R, Greatbatch D, Parker S, Watson P.
Qualitative research methods in health technology assessment: a review of the literature. Health Technol Assess. ; 2 [ PubMed ]. The Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) is an independent non-statutory committee established by the Australian Government Minister for Health in Bibliography of Research on Social Network Sites.
Aaltonen, S,, Kakderi, C,, Hausmann, V, and Heinze, A. (). Social media . The Career & Technical Education (CTE) Programs section is responsible for developing and maintaining educational programs that prepare individuals for occupations important to Florida’s economic development. Since the late s health technology assessment (HTA) has gained influence as a research and evaluation approach supporting health care policy.
The focus on this methodology is congruent with the growing importance of evidence-based health care. Trident University has been featured by urbanagricultureinitiative.com as one of the Top 10 Best and Least Expensive Online Bachelors in Computer Science Degree programs.
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