Sources Allium sativum of the Allioideae subfamily is a food product known as Garlic in the same genus as onion plants allium alongside some other common food products such as onion, garlic, chive, leek, and rakkyo.
Received Jun 30; Accepted Sep The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Microtubules are one of the three major cytoskeletal components in eukaryotic cells. GTP hydrolysis alters the conformation of the tubulin molecules and drives the dynamic behavior of microtubules.
Periods of rapid microtubule polymerization alternate with periods of shrinkage in a process known as dynamic instability. In plants, dynamic instability plays a key role in determining the organization of microtubules into arrays, and these arrays vary throughout the cell cycle.
In this review, we describe the mechanisms that regulate microtubule dynamics and underlie dynamic instability, and discuss how dynamic instability may shape microtubule organization in plant cells.
A key characteristic of microtubules is their dynamic nature, and microtubules dynamically alter their organization in response to the needs of the cell. Microtubule arrays in the somatic cells of higher plants undergo dynamic changes in conformation throughout the cell cycle.
Specifically, microtubules form a cortical microtubule array, pre-prophase band, mitotic spindle, and phragmoplast during each round of the cell cycle Wasteneys, Each individual microtubule elongates or shrinks to fulfill a specific role, and growing and shrinking microtubules co-exist in the same cytoplasm.
For instance, chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate depends on the simultaneous presence of both growing and shrinking microtubules. When chromosomes are moved toward the metaphase plate, the microtubules attached to one side of the kinetochore must elongate, while those at the other side must shrink, even though all of these microtubules exist in the same cellular environment.
Furthermore, during anaphase, the microtubules that connect spindle poles to kinetochores must disassemble to pull the chromosomes toward the pole, whereas those that interdigitate at the equatorial plane must remain assembled to maintain the distance between the poles. Thus, mechanisms exist that permit microtubules in different regions of a cell to display distinct dynamic properties.
In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that control microtubule dynamics and the effect that these dynamics have on the organization of plant microtubule arrays. For this purpose, we summarize our current understanding of mechanisms of microtubule nucleation, elongation, and shrinkage, and describe how such dynamic properties contribute to the organization of cortical arrays and phragmoplasts.
Multiple protofilaments, typically 13, assemble into tubular microtubule structures. Since tubulin dimers are aligned in the same orientation in a protofilament and all protofilaments in a microtubule are parallel to each other, the microtubule is intrinsically polar.
The assembly and disassembly of microtubules occurs by the addition and release of subunits from the ends, respectively.Mechanism Of Action IXEMPRA ® (ixabepilone) is a non-taxane microtubule-targeting agent 1 In preclinical studies, IXEMPRA, a semisynthetic analog of epothilone B, had low susceptibility to multiple mechanisms of resistance 1,, *.
IXEMPRA binds directly to beta-tubulin subunits and suppresses their dynamic instability, blocking the mitotic phase of the cell division cycle and inducing cell.
*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive. Agents which act as inhibitors of tubulin, also act as inhibitors of cell division.
A microtubule exists in a continuous dynamic state of growing and shortening by reversible association and dissociation of α/β-tubulin heterodimers at both the ends. This dynamic behavior and resulting control over the length of the microtubule is vital to the proper functioning of the mitotic spindle in.
Microtubule dynamic instability can empirically be described by four parameters: rate of growth, rate of shrinkage, frequency of switching from growth to shrinkage (known as “catastrophe frequency”) and frequency of switching from shrinkage back to growth (known as “rescue frequency”).
The study of protein misfolding and aggregation saw resurgence in the last decade. Aggregation is the main cause of several human neurodegenerative diseases which makes this field as the leading edge in the science today.
Summary of Garlic Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a popular vegetable with a variety of medicinal urbanagricultureinitiative.com or eating garlic can benefit cardiovascular health, physical and sexual vitality, cognition, and resistance to infection.