Humanites chapter 2 summary

Comparative Literature While it seeks to prepare its students for reading and research in the languages and histories of different societies and periods, it is also dedicated to their critical and cultural analysis.

Humanites chapter 2 summary

Three of those findings are highlighted here because they have both a solid research base to support them and strong implications for how we teach.

It is not the committee's intention to suggest that these are the only insights from research that can beneficially be incorporated into practice.

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Indeed, a number of additional findings are discussed in How People Learn. Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works.

If their initial understanding is not engaged, they Humanites chapter 2 summary fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside the classroom.

Research on early learning suggests that the process of making sense of the world begins at a very young age. Children begin in preschool years to develop sophisticated understandings whether accurate or not of the phenomena around them Wellman, Those initial understandings can have a powerful effect on the integration of new concepts and information.

Sometimes those understandings are accurate, providing a foundation for building new knowledge. But sometimes they are inaccurate Carey and Gelman, In science, students often have misconceptions of physical properties that cannot be easily observed. In humanities, their preconceptions often include stereotypes or simplifications, as when history is understood as a struggle between good guys and bad guys Gardner, Bridging Research and Practice.

The National Academies Press.

Humanites chapter 2 summary

Students' initial ideas about mechanics are like strands of yarn, some unconnected, some loosely interwoven. The act of instruction can be viewed as helping the students unravel individual strands of belief, label them, and then weave them into a fabric of more complete understanding.

Rather than denying the relevancy of a belief, teachers might do better by helping students differentiate their present ideas from and integrate them into conceptual beliefs more like those of scientists. The understandings that children bring to the classroom can already be quite powerful in the early grades.

For example, some children have been found to hold onto their preconception of a flat earth by imagining a round earth to be shaped like a pancake Vosniadou and Brewer, This construction of a new understanding is guided by a model of the earth that helps the child explain how people can stand or walk on its surface.

Many young children have trouble giving up the notion that one-eighth is greater than one-fourth, because 8 is more than 4 Gelman and Gallistel, If children were blank slates, telling them that the earth is round or that one-fourth is greater than one-eighth would be adequate.

But since they already have ideas about the earth and about numbers, those ideas must be directly addressed in order to transform or expand them. Drawing out and working with existing understandings is important for learners of all ages.

For example, in a study of physics students from elite, technologically oriented colleges, Andrea DiSessa instructed them to play a computerized game that required them to direct a computer-simulated object called a dynaturtle so that it would hit a target and do so with minimum speed at impact.

Participants were introduced to the game and given a hands-on trial that allowed them to apply a few taps with a small wooden mallet to a tennis ball on a table before beginning the game. The same game was also played by elementary schoolchildren. DiSessa found that both groups of students failed dismally.

Success would have required demonstrating an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Despite their training, college physics students, like the elementary schoolchildren, aimed the moving dynaturtle directly at the target, failing to take momentum into account. Further investigation of one college student who participated in the study revealed that Page 12 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Students at a variety of ages persist in their beliefs that seasons are caused by the earth's distance from the sun rather than by the tilt of the earth Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,or that an object that had been tossed in the air has both the force of gravity and the force of the hand that tossed it acting on it, despite training to the contrary Clement, To develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must: This principle emerges from research that compares the performance of experts and novices and from research on learning and transfer.

Experts, regardless of the field, always draw on a richly structured information base; they are not just "good thinkers" or "smart people.

But knowledge of a large set of disconnected facts is not sufficient. To develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must have opportunities to learn with understanding. Deep understanding of subject matter transforms factual information into usable knowledge.

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A pronounced difference between experts and novices is that experts' command of concepts shapes their understanding of new information: They do not necessarily have better overall memories than other people. But their conceptual understanding allows them to extract a level of meaning from information that is not apparent to novices, and this helps them select and remember relevant information.

Experts are also able to fluently access relevant knowledge because their understanding of subject matter allows them to quickly identify what is relevant.The Humanities, Seventh Edition Mary Ann Frese Witt, North Carolina State University at Raleigh Charlotte Vestal Brown, North Carolina State University at Raleigh.

Publisher Summary. This chapter describes the use of bibliographical tools. The new patterns in subject bibliography for social scientists sought to cater for the needs at the expense of the browsing ones.

Volume The Subject Bibliography of the Social Sciences and Humanities focuses on subject bibliographies of the humanities and social. Sant Jordi Festival in Barcelona Roses, books and lovers: Barcelona is full of them on the 23rd of April, World Book Day is a distinctly romantic event in Catalonia.

Humanities Last Hopes; Grisha Yeager's Bad Parenting Shifters War Shifters_Master Chapter 2: The past is my hope and the future is my fear Summary: Step by Step, Levi and Mikasa make there way to a better life than what they endure in the underground.

comments, I really appreciate it. Anyway, let's get to it! (See the end of. Chapter 1 [PDF] Reviews "Nussbaum makes a persuasive case."--New Yorker "Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities is refreshing in being a scholarly work in the humanities and social sciences from a US author that is not wholly preoccupied with the US.

Indeed, one of the most interesting facet's of Nussbaum's work is her. Complete summary of Charles Dickens' Hard Times. eNotes plot summaries cover all the significant action of Hard Times. Chapter 7: Summary and Analysis to learn anything of the humanities.

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