Two examples of case-centered research are: Ethical considerations are important in every research method involving human subjects but they take on added significance in case-centered research where researchers often work closely with research participants over a period of time and frequently in the face-to-face mode where researcher-participant relationships play an important role in the research outcomes. Both case study and narrative research gather a great deal of highly detailed information on each case, e. This is why the use of informed and voluntary consent as well as approval from institutional review boards when required is critical in case-centered research.
Skip to main content Legal and Ethical Implications Harvesting social media raises legal and ethical issues that must undergo careful consideration and risk assessment before the creation of a collecting program. The legal challenges faced involve social media user rights, whereas the ethical challenges concentrate on a larger question: Though copyright and ethical concerns contain expected ambiguities on the topic of social media collecting, fair use under copyright law likely provides cultural heritage institutions with a safety net amongst the uncertainty.
Having a foundation of understanding for the scope of these issues should help guide the creation of policies and practices surrounding social media harvesting and preservation.
As legal battles over social media continue, laws and legal implications are subject to change. Intellectual property rights pervade the discussion on legal dilemmas that researchers, archivists, librarians, and others confront when harvesting social media data. Digital platforms have become increasingly complex, and social media use has escalated, creating new avenues of research data.
For example, Morel vs. The case involved photographs of the disastrous earthquake in Haiti that Daniel Morel posted on Twitter. The two publishing companies sold and distributed the images to clients, many of which were news sources.
Unlike photographs, social media posts, such as those found on Twitter, may, in some cases, be insufficiently creative to qualify for copyright protection. Creative works clearly exist on social media platforms.
An interesting example includes a short story written solely on Twitter by acclaimed author David Mitchell.
However, somewhere in between the clear distinctions of short stories and short updates lie many posts that may not fall in either category. Twitter approaches this uncertainty by allowing users to file takedown requests for people who see others posting their content without attribution.
Usually the takedown requests are for more obviously copyrighted content, like photographs or videos. Despite ambiguity about what content is copyrightable on social media, fair use remains a significant defense against claims of copyright infringement. Like other copyrighted works in archival collections, copyrighted social media contents may be used without permission in cases permitted by fair use.
This Toolkit cannot answer all fair use questions, no one can until a court rules on a specific fact pattern. However, archivists often take calculated fair use risks when using copyrighted material in support of their professional mission.
Another issue faced when collecting social media is that of privacy. Privacy concerns blur the boundaries between legal and ethical considerations. An increase in computer technology means that it is easier to accumulate data and connect various data points about an individual, which is more difficult, though not impossible, to do with written records.
The case, Vanginderen vs. He eventually was found innocent of the crime. Vanginderen claimed that the digitization of the newspaper harmed his reputation because it was libelous and constituted the publication of private facts.
The court dismissed the case twice. The privacy implications that exist when harvesting social media occur because these platforms are dynamic, i. The enigmatic ethical questions posed by social media collecting often lack clear answers, and sometimes only lead to more questions.
Some of them even appear to be transplants from traditional archiving and researching.Jul 25, · In the tragic case of Charlie Gard, the British baby with brain damage whose fate pitted doctors against parents, a medical ethicist would give special consideration to his nurses.
Ethics can be viewed as a subjective philosophy dealing with right and wrong or good and evil. Ethical implications of any activity are that the result be viewed with those ethical considerations in mind.
But one must consider whether ethical considerations, like beauty, are in the eye of the beholder. Find case studies and scenarios on a variety of fields in applied ethics.
Cases can also be viewed by the following categories: Bioethics. Business Ethics. Engineering Ethics. Ethical Issues for Students.
Baunstein N. Ethics in Action: Ethical issues for students. J Acad Nutr Diet. ; Helm J. Ethics in Action: Ethical and legal issues related to blogging and social media. J Acad Nutr Diet. ; Ayers E Ethics Opinion: The impact of social media on business and ethical practices in dietetics.
J Acad Nutr Diet.
In press. Legal and Ethical Implications; SAA members have written case studies about ethical dilemmas they have faced and what aspect of the Code of Ethics it relates to. Currently, the four case studies provided on the SAA website demonstrate archivists need to document all of their selection actions and decisions when curating collections.
Ethical Implications in the Excello Case Essay. Ethical and Legal Implications of Excello Telecommunications Excello Telecommunications has suffered a downward financial spiral - Ethical Implications in the Excello Case Essay introduction.
This downward spiral will affect bonuses, share prices, and stock options (Mintz & Morris, ).