October 9, Swigert had just replaced Ken Mattingly as command module pilot after Mattingly was exposed to German measles. Instead, in an instant, the spacecraft pivoted from a moon-bound landing unit to a crippled vessel. The spaceflight stands today as a demonstration of NASA innovation saving lives on the fly, and vividly illustrates the dangers of working in space as well.
It is a widespread, hilly selenological area thought to be composed of ejecta from the impact that formed Mare Imbrium.
The next Apollo mission, Apollo 14, eventually made a successful flight to Fra Mauro. Mission highlights Apollo 13 launches from Kennedy Space Center, April 11, Apollo 13 spacecraft configuration en route to the Moon The mission was launched at the planned time, An anomaly occurred when the second-stage, center inboard engine shut down about two minutes early.
Pogo oscillations had been seen on previous Titan rockets, and also on the Saturn V during Apollo 6 but on Apollo 13, they were amplified by an unexpected interaction with turbopump cavitation. These included addition of a helium-gas reservoir to the center engine liquid oxygen line to damp pressure oscillations, an automatic cutoff as a backup, and simplification of the propellant valves of all five second-stage engines.
The crew performed the separation and transposition maneuver to dock the Command Module Odyssey to the Lunar Module LM Aquarius, and pulled away from the spent third stage, which ground controllers then sent on a course to impact the Moon in range of a seismometer placed on the surface by Apollo They then settled in for the three-day trip to Fra Mauro.
Astronaut Fred Haise, Jr. Houston flight controllers asked Swigert to turn on the hydrogen and oxygen tank stirring fans in the Service Module, which were designed to destratify the cryogenic contents and increase the accuracy of their quantity readings. Two minutes later, the astronauts heard a "pretty large bang", accompanied by fluctuations in electrical power and the firing of the attitude control thrusters;  the crew initially thought that a meteoroid might have struck the Lunar Module.
Communications and telemetry to Earth were lost for 1. Oxygen tank 2 immediately read quantity zero. About three minutes later, the number 1 and number 3 fuel cells failed.
Lovell reported seeing out the window that the craft was venting "a gas of some sort" into space.
The crew was forced to shut down the CM completely to save this for re-entry, and to power up the LM to use as a "lifeboat". The trajectory shown is at a point much earlier and farther away from the Moon than where the Apollo 13 accident happened. The damage to the Service Module made safe return from a lunar landing impossible, so Lead Flight Director Gene Kranz ordered an abort of the mission.
Apollo 13 was close to entering the lunar sphere of gravitational influence at 61 hours GETwhich was the break-even point between direct and circumlunar aborts, and the latter allowed more time for evaluation and planning before a major rocket burn. B-5 There also was concern about "the structural integrity of the Service Module,"  p.
Apollo 13 had left its initial free-return trajectory earlier in the mission, as required for the lunar landing at Fra Mauro. Therefore, the first order of business was to re-establish the free-return trajectory with a III but this was deemed unnecessary given the rates at which consumables were being used.
The 4-minute, second burn was so accurate that only two more small course corrections were subsequently needed. The developing drama was shown on television. Low power levels made even voice communications difficult.
The Lunar Module consumables were intended to sustain two people for a day and a half, not three people for four days. To keep the LM life-support and communication systems operational until re-entry, the LM was powered down to the lowest levels possible.
The CM had an adequate supply of canisters, but these were incompatible with the LM. NASA engineers referred to the improvised device as "the mailbox". The unpowered CM got so cold that water began to condense on solid surfaces, causing concern that this might short out electrical systems when it was reactivated.
This turned out not to be a problem, partly because of the extensive electrical insulation improvements instituted after the Apollo 1 fire. To solve the problem, Grumman called on the engineering expertise of the University of Toronto.
A team of six UT engineers, led by senior scientist Bernard Etkinwas formed to solve the problem within a day. The team concluded that pressurizing the tunnel connecting the Lunar Module to the Command Module just before separation would provide the force necessary to push the two modules a safe distance away from each other just prior to re-entry.
The team had 6 hours to compute the pressure required, using slide rules. They needed an accurate calculation, as too high a pressure might damage the hatch and its seal, causing the astronauts to burn up; too low a pressure would not provide enough separation distance of the LM.
Grumman relayed their calculation to NASA, and from there in turn to the astronauts, who used it successfully. It was then that the crew were surprised to see for the first time that the entire Sector 4 panel had been blown off.
According to the analysts, these pictures also showed the antenna damage and possibly an upward tilt to the fuel cell shelf above the oxygen tank compartment. Finally, the crew jettisoned the Lunar Module Aquarius using the above procedure worked out at the University of Toronto, leaving the Command Module Odyssey to begin its lone re-entry through the atmosphere.
The re-entry on a lunar mission normally was accompanied by about four minutes of typical communications blackout caused by ionization of the air around the Command Module. The crew was in good condition except for Haise, who was suffering from a serious urinary tract infection because of insufficient water intake.
To avoid altering the trajectory of the spacecraft, the crew had been instructed to temporarily stop urine dumps.Mission Overview.
Mission Plan. Apollo 13 was the thirteenth in a series of missions using Apollo-specification flight hardware and was to be the third lunar landing. The launch vehicle and spacecraft were similar to those of Apollo There were some differences in the makeup of the ALSEP.
Apollo 13 Communication Plan A Self Reflection: While working on the communication project, we were fortunate to have had Ron Howard’s “Apollo 13” movie for reference to comprehend the complexity the team faced upon the incident that befell the mission. The Unified S-band (USB) system was a tracking and communication system developed for the Apollo program by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
It operated in the S band portion of the microwave spectrum, unifying voice communications, television, telemetry, command, tracking and ranging into a single system to save size and . Apollo Apollo 13 was supposed to land in the Fra Mauro area. An explosion on board forced Apollo 13 to circle the moon without landing.
The Fra Mauro site was reassigned to Apollo Apr 03, · On April 11, it will have been forty-three years since the Apollo 13 lunar mission became one of the greatest death-defying adventures in history. . A Self Reflection: While working on the communication project, we were fortunate to have had Ron Howard’s “Apollo 13” movie for reference to comprehend the complexity the team faced upon the incident that befell the mission.