Summit Historical Society by Arthur Cotterell It was the spring of and, as war raged across Europe, the small town of Summit population about 9, was feeling the surge of patriotism and pride. Soon many of its young men would be going to Europe to take their part in what was to be called The Great War. Lawrence, Summit physician and the founder of Overlook Hospital, brought forth the idea of forming, an ambulance corps, with a large contingent of local men, early in as the United States was about to enter the war.
Ambulance bus Design and construction[ edit ] Ambulance design must take into account local conditions and infrastructure. Maintained roads are necessary for road going ambulances to arrive on scene and then transport the patient to a hospital, though in rugged areas four-wheel drive or all-terrain vehicles can be used.
Fuel must be available and service facilities are necessary to maintain the vehicle. Similarly, modern ambulances are equipped with two-way radios  or cellular telephones to enable them to contact hospitals, either to notify the appropriate hospital of the ambulance's pending arrival, or, in cases where physicians do not form part of the ambulance's crew, to confer with a physician for medical oversight.
The first is frequently a manufacturer of light or medium trucks or full-size vans or in some places, cars such as Mercedes-BenzNissanToyotaor Ford.
This is done by one of two methods — either coachbuildingwhere the modifications are started from scratch and built on to the vehicle, or using a modular system, where a pre-built 'box' is put on to the empty chassis of the ambulance, and then finished off.
Modern ambulances are typically powered by internal combustion engineswhich can be powered by any conventional fuel, including dieselgasoline or liquefied petroleum gas  depending on the preference of the operator and the availability of different options.
Colder regions often use gasoline-powered engines, as diesels can be difficult to start when they are cold. Warmer regions may favor diesel engines, as they are thought to be more efficient and more durable.
Diesel power is sometimes chosen due to safety concerns, after a series of fires involving gasoline-powered ambulances during the s. These fires were ultimately attributed in part to gasoline's higher volatility in comparison to diesel fuel.
Beginning inFord will sell its ambulance chassis with a gasoline engine in order to meet emissions requirements. These standards may have different levels which reflect the type of patient which the ambulance is expected to transport for instance specifying a different standard for routine patient transport than high dependencyor may base standards on the size of vehicle.
For instance, in Europe, the European Committee for Standardization publishes the standard CENwhich specifies minimum compliance levels across Ambulance corps in france essay build of ambulance, including crash resistance, equipment levels, and exterior marking.
In the United States, standards for ambulance design have existed sincewhere the standard is published by the General Services Administration and known as KKKA.
The move towards standardisation is now reaching countries without a history of prescriptive codes, such as India, which approved its first national standard for ambulance construction in Also, the ambulance crew's responsibilities to their patient often preclude their use of safety devices such as seat belts.
Research has shown that ambulances are more likely to be involved in motor vehicle collisions resulting in injury or death than either fire trucks or police cars. Unrestrained occupants, particularly those riding in the patient-care compartment, are particularly vulnerable. Two-way radio — One of the most important pieces of equipment in modern emergency medical services as it allows for the issuing of jobs to the ambulance, and can allow the crew to pass information back to control or to the hospital for example a priority ASHICE message to alert the hospital of the impending arrival of a critical patient.
These terminals can function instead of or alongside the two-way radio and can be used to pass details of jobs to the crew, and can log the time the crew was mobile to a patient, arrived, and left scene, or fulfill any other computer based function. They may also be fitted with sound recording facilities.
This can be used as a form of protection from violence against ambulance crews,  or in some cases dependent on local laws to prove or disprove cases where a member of crew stands accused of malpractice.
Tail lift or ramp — Ambulances can be fitted with a tail lift or ramp in order to facilitate loading a patient without having to undertake any lifting. This is especially important where the patient is obese or specialty care transports that require large, bulky equipment such as a neonatal incubator or hospital beds.
There may also be equipment linked to this such as winches which are designed to pull heavy patients into the vehicle. Air conditioning — Ambulances are often fitted with a separate air conditioning system to serve the working area from that which serves the cab.
This helps to maintain an appropriate temperature for any patients being treated, but may also feature additional features such as filtering against airborne pathogens.
Data Recorders — These are often placed in ambulances to record such information as speed, braking power and time, activation of active emergency warnings such as lights and sirens, as well as seat belt usage. These are often used in coordination with GPS units.
Ambulances can also be trailers, which are pulled by bicycles, motorcycles, tractors, or animals. Animal-powered ambulances can be particularly useful in regions that are subject to flooding. Motorcycles fitted with sidecars or motorcycle ambulances are also used, though they are subject to some of the same limitations as more traditional over-the-road ambulances.
The level of care provided by these ambulances varies between merely providing transport to a medical clinic to providing on-scene and continuing care during transport. The robustness of the design becomes more important, as does the nature of the skills required to properly operate the vehicle.
Cost-effectiveness can be a high priority. They are required to gain access to patients as quickly as possible, and in many countries, are given dispensation from obeying certain traffic laws. For instance, they may be able to treat a red traffic light or stop sign as a yield sign 'give way' or be permitted to break the speed limit.
Passive visual warnings[ edit ] A North West Ambulance Service ambulance displays reversed wording and the Star of Lifewith flashing blue grille lights and wig-wagging headlamps Various symbols for identifying ambulances: The Maltese CrossBattenburg markings The passive visual warnings are usually part of the design of the vehicle, and involve the use of high contrast patterns.
Older ambulances and those in developing countries are more likely to have their pattern painted on, whereas modern ambulances generally carry retro-reflective designs, which reflects light from car headlights or torches. Popular patterns include 'checker board' alternate coloured squares, sometimes called ' Battenburg ', named after a type of cakechevrons arrowheads — often pointed towards the front of the vehicle if on the side, or pointing vertically upwards on the rear or stripes along the side these were the first type of retro-reflective device introduced, as the original reflective material, invented by 3Monly came in tape form.
In addition to retro-reflective markings, some services now have the vehicles painted in a bright sometimes fluorescent yellow or orange for maximum visual impact, though classic white or red are also common.
Fire department-operated ambulances are often painted red to match the fire apparatuses.They were moved by motor ambulance to a hospital that was assigned to support the infantry divisions.
When the patients left their division’s medical unit they entered a larger and more complex level of command called a corps, which was the grouping of several infantry divisions, or an army, which was the grouping of several corps.
AP Euro Essay Compare and contrast the reign of Peter the Great of Russia and Louis XIV of France. STUDY.
PLAY. Intro: - Colbert enforced mercantilism in France - Had ambulance corps, standardized uniforms, weapons and systems of training for soldiers. Overall Essay. Is any important material left unsaid? This order has survived all these centuries and still functions as St.
John Ambulance Corps in England with its branches all over the world, ( between the joint forces of Britain and France with Russia .
An ambulance in Lausanne (Switzerland) marked with multiple Stars of Life (representing emergency medical services). Emergency medical services prepare to airlift the victim of a car accident to hospital, in Ontario, Canada.
Ambulance and Medical Corps and become head of the American Red Cross in France. Now the cars and busses that could be commandeered for a tenuous retrieval and care of the wounded were replaced by convoys of ambulances driven in a formation that brought an organized response to the human damage of war.
(AFS), an ambulance corps . Penn Yan Area Vol. Ambulance Corps, Penn Yan, New York. likes · 4 talking about this · 66 were here.